UNESCO chose this lake as one of the natural sources of the environment in the world. Because of the importance of Lake Urumieh, we will dedicate today's program to this marvel.
Urumieh Lake, located in the north-west of the Persian country, is Iran's largest national lake. With an area of 5,700 km2, a length of 120 to 140 km and its widest point reaches between 15 to 50 km, The average depth is 5 meters. Due to the natural beauties of the coast and the islands and also due to the good natural conditions it is an appropriate place where the birds of the world live, permanently or partially. Therefore, the lake has been declared by UNESCO as one of the natural sources of the world.
The city of Urumieh has one of the largest mines in the world and contains 8 million cubic meters and different types of salt.
More than hundreds of small and large islands lie within the lake. The inhabited Isalami Islands (Islam) are Quyun-daqi, Espier, Ashk and A-rezu, among others.
From the heights of the mountains flow waters from the rivers to the lake, Talje-Rud (Ayi-Chai), Sufi-Chai, Zarineh-Rud, Simineh-Rud, Shari-Chai, Mahabad-Rud, and Nazlo-Chai.
The reason that the water of the lake is salt is due to the existence of saline domes in the northern part of the lake and also by the entrance of an enormous amount of minerals through the Ayi-Chai (Talje-Rud) river. The density of water is high, by which it varies at different points and according to the seasons, but the average density is 300 grams per liter.
The density of the lake, which is more than normal, prevents it from freezing on the surface of the water. This is one of the characteristics that attracts migratory waterfowl in the winter. And despite having a very cold climate, the region is always prestigious for the existence of beautiful birds.
In summer, the Urumieh lake is a good pool for local swimmers and other towns. The mineral waters of the lake attract patients suffering from rheumatism or other skin diseases as well as neurological diseases that take advantage of their properties for treatment.
The salinity of the water prevents the presence of fish or other aquatic in this lake. But according to studies, there is a kind of Zoo-small plantations called Artemia that exist in the lake and feed on a kind of green mosses that grow on the lake. Artemia is one of the most nutritious crustaceans that live in very salty waters and are very important to feed other aquatic species such as prawns, fish and birds. The Artemias are known, by their golden color, like the gold of the lake of Urumieh.
In the waters of the Urumieh lake are also hundreds of islands, to a greater extent rocks and stones, where there are different species of plants and animals. Then, in this program, we will take a stroll through the beautiful nature of the Urumieh National Park.
Isalami Island (Islamic) is one of the largest that is found in the lake, by which, sometimes, it becomes an archipelago. With an area of 25,000 hectares, it is the only inhabited island. The archipelago has fresh water sources. The families that are housed in this island dedicate themselves mainly to the agriculture and the cattle-raising and they use the fresh water of the sources. The Holaku-jan castle is located on the highest peak of the island, where the bodies of the Mongol kings are buried. In the seventh century AH, Holaku, founder of the Mongol dynasty Ilcanato, ordered to rebuild the castle, where they stored the jewels and trophies obtained from looting in Baghdad and other Islamic territories. And finally, according to historical documents, this castle became the tomb of Holaku-jan, so in Persian call the castle as Gur Qaleh (the castle tomb).
The island of Kabudan (Qawillon-daqi) is also one of the largest islands, but is not inhabited in Lake Urumieh which has 3200 hectares of surface and, from an environmental point of view, is one of the most important wildlife habitat in this region . The highest point of the island with a height of 310 meters. Also on the island are several species of wild animals such as sheep, sheep and even leopards. The flora of Kabudan Island includes small almond trees, juniper among others, all on a background of herbs. In the northern part of the lake of the island is located the Island A-rezu (Desire Island) and in the west is located the Island of Spiro.
The island of Ashk (Ashk Daqi) is triangular with a surface of 2500 hectares and the highest point of the island reaches 1560 meters above sea level. The freshwater island, meadows and forests. In the winter, they take the herds from the town of Urumieh to shepherd. The island's fresh water and rich wildlife has created a good situation for the feeding of Iran's yellow deer and has therefore been chosen as a natural ecosystem for deer. The most prominent feature of the yellow deer of Ashk Island which has been retaining its wild character, while the deer of other regions have become accustomed to the men, due to the feeding that they offer them and, in this way, they have lost the wild character.
The island of Spiro is also in the northern part of Ashk and is shaped like a fish. The island has a surface of 1250 hectares and its highest point reaches a height of 1500 meters above sea level. There are no trees or plants on the island and it is white due to the existence of lime. Also, in spring, waterfowl lay their eggs in different parts of the island.
The lake of Urumieh becomes, in different seasons of the year, in one of the greater zones where they harbor certain birds that lay their eggs. The group overflew of flamingos, pelicans, and other birds over Urumieh Lake is one of Iran's natural attractions. The lake turns completely into autumn and winter. The surface of the blue waters in the spring and summer are very serene, but the serenity does not last very long, as the water-immigrating birds arrive from cold northern lands to make an abode and spend the winter in the Urumieh lake. The lake is the habitat and place where many birds are fed in all seasons of the year. In addition to the surface of the lake and its islands, on the shores to the south, there are also many natural pools of fresh water, which fill with water from the fountains and rivers, where another group of birds, such as gray-footed geese, Green-headed, broad-billed, ducks with a beige and white head. But what makes us sad is that, in recent years, because of the lack of rain and also because of the increase in temperature, there has been a great amount of water on the surface of Urumieh lake. And as an important area to maintain the region's ecosystem, those responsible have taken steps to feed the lake's water.
The Urumieh National Park, with features we have shown, is a beautiful image of nature and mind-blowing that tourists do not miss the opportunity to visit.